Here is an extract from the Human Development Report 2014. The chart below shows when investments in life capabilities occur earlier, future prospects are better. Useful for A2 Developing Economies – Policies.
When investments in life capabilities occur earlier, future prospects are better (see the solid blue line in figure below). The opposite is also true— the lack of timely and continuing investments in life capabilities can heavily compromise an individual’s ability to achieve full human development potential (see the solid red line in figure below). Later interventions can help individuals recover—but usually only partially—and move to a higher human development path (see the dashed blue lines in figure below).
Too often, poverty disrupts the normal course of early childhood development—more than one in five children in developing countries lives in absolute income poverty and is vulnerable to malnutrition. In developing countries (where 92 percent of children live) 7 in 100 will not survive beyond age 5, 50 will not have their birth registered, 68 will not receive early childhood education, 17 will never enrol in primary school, 30 will be stunted and 25 will live in poverty. Inadequate food, sanitation facilities and hygiene increase the risk of infections and stunting: Close to 156 million children are stunted, a result of undernutrition and infection. Undernutrition contributes to 35 percent of deaths due to measles, malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea. The impact is greatest if the deprivation is in early childhood.