The world attained the first Millennium Development Goal target—to cut the 1990 poverty rate in half by 2015—five years ahead of schedule, in 2010. Despite the progress made in reducing poverty, the number of people living in extreme poverty globally remains unacceptably high. And given global growth forecasts, poverty reduction may not be fast enough to reach the target of ending extreme poverty by 2030.
According to the most recent estimates:
- 1990 – 36% of the world’s population lived on less than US$1.90 a day
- 2013 – 11 % of the world’s population lived on less than US$1.90 a day
- 2015 – 10 % of the world’s population lived on less than US$1.90 a day
Nearly 1.1 billion fewer people are living in extreme poverty than in 1990. In 2015, 736 million people lived on less than $1.90 a day, down from 1.85 billion in 1990.
While poverty rates have declined in all regions, progress has been uneven:
- East Asia and Pacific (47 million extreme poor)
- Europe and Central Asia (7 million) have reduced extreme poverty to below 3 percent, achieving the 2030 target.
- More than half of the extreme poor live in Sub-Saharan Africa. In fact, the number of poor in the region increased by 9 million, with 413 million people living on less than US$1.90 a day in 2015, more than all the other regions combined. If the trend continues, by 2030, nearly 9 out of 10 extreme poor will be in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- The majority of the global poor live in rural areas, are poorly educated, employed in the agricultural sector, and under 18 years of age.
One of the main challenges is that it is becoming very difficult too reach those that are in extreme poverty as they often live in countries that are remote or have internal strife amongst its population. Furthermore access to good schools, health care, electricity, safe water, and other critical services remains elusive for many people, often determined by socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity, and geography.
Even those that seem to be able to move out of poverty can only do it for a certain period of time as economic shocks, food insecurity and climate change can be their undoing and revert them back into poverty.
The book ‘The End of Poverty: How we can make it happen in our lifetime’ by Jeffrey Sachs (2005) looks policies to overcome poverty. Although it is an old publication it does have some valid points. However what is imperative is that a one-size fits all policy doesn’t work as all countries have some unique variables that requires a customised approach.
At the most basic level, the key to ending extreme poverty is to enable the poorest of the poor to get their foot on the ladder of development. The development ladder hovers overhead, and the poorest of the poor are stuck beneath it. They lack the minimum amount of capital necessary to get a foothold, and therefore need a boost up to the first rung. The extreme poor lack six major kinds of capital:
- Human capital: health, nutrition, and skills needed for each person to be economically productive
- Business capital: the machinery, facilities, motorized transport used in agriculture, industry, and services
- Infrastructure: roads, power, water and sanitation, airports and seaports, and telecommunications systems, that are critical in-puts into business productivity
- Natural capital: arable land, healthy soils, biodiversity, and well-functioning ecosystems that provide the environmental services needed by human society
- Public institutional capital: the commercial law, judicial systems, government services and policing that underpin the peaceful and prosperous division of labor
- Knowledge capital: the scientific and technological know-how that raises productivity in business output and the promotion of physical and natural capital
Source: The Economist – Espresso