Been doing some revision courses and today we looked at the TWI and floating exchange rates. The exchange rate measures the external value of the NZ$ in terms of how much of another currency it can buy. For example – how many pounds, US dollars or Euros you can buy with NZ$1000. The daily value is determined in the foreign exchange markets (FOREX) where billions of $s of currencies are traded every hour.
A large percentage of the dealing in currencies is purely speculative, that is to say, people trading dollars, yen, euros and sterling seeking to make a profit (or capital gain) from small fluctuations in currency values.
Trade Weighted Index (T.W.I.)
An index that measures the value of $NZ in relationship to a group (or “basket”) of other currencies. The currencies included are from NZ’s major export markets i.e. Australia, USA, Japan, Euro area, UK. – $A, $US, ¥, €, £. Each of the currencies included in the TWI is “weighted” according to how important exports to that country are (= % of total exports)
From the TWI we can see if the $NZ has appreciated or depreciated against our major trading partners currencies overall.
Free, Fluctuating, or Floating Exchange Rates
In a free market the rate of exchange is determined by the market forces of supply and demand. Where these conditions apply the exchange rate is said to free, fluctuating or floating. Therefore the following have a great impact on the rate of exchange in a free market:
An increase in the demand for the $NZ will result from more people wanting get or buy $NZ.
- Increase in the value of exports
- Increase in tourists traveling to NZ
- Increase in foreign investment in NZ (buying assets / companies / depositing savings)
- Increase in NZer’s taking out loans overseas
An increase in the supply for the $NZ will result from more people wanting get or buy other currencies (as they have to supply $NZ to the market to get the other currencies)
- Increase in the value of imports
- Increase in NZer’s travelling to other countries
- Increase in NZ investment overseas
- Increase in NZer’s repaying loans made overseas
Other Factors Effecting $NZ with a Floating Exchange Rate
- Relative Inflation Rates e.g. if NZ’s inflation rate is higher than other countries then the price NZ’s exports will become relatively more expensive and NZ will lose competitiveness and exports will fall.
- Income of countries NZ trades with e.g. Australia is in a recession – NZ exports
- Tastes and Preferences e.g. world news, current events, fashion, trends, popularity effecting NZ’s exports e.g. Sept 11th and an increase in tourists to NZ
- Access to Overseas Market e.g. trade restrictions (protectionist policies e.g. tariff, quotas and regulations) placed on NZ exports by other countries governments.
- Relative Interest Rates e.g. if interest rates in NZ are higher than in other countries, then this will attract people to save in NZ banks, creating demand for the $NZ.