Tag Archives: Crime

A contestable market gone wrong – Taxis in South Africa

Just covering contestable markets with my A2 and came across a relevant article in the Otago University EcoNZ@Otago magazine. Up to 1987 the transit authority in South Africa had a monopoly on public transport. It was near impossible for private taxi firms to operate and the use of public transport was very expensive – many spent 20% of their incomes on the commute. In this context the demand for taxi services was high and many illegal operations started to appear. The government, believing that a more deregulated transport market would improve its effectiveness, eased restrictions on private taxis.

A huge number of taxis appeared on the market of which the majority were large 15-seat vehicles (aka Kombis) and they ran late-night and rural services, and travelled to locations that busses and trains did not. However in order to reduce the running costs of the Kombi the road-worthiness of vehicles became a concern whilst passenger numbers grew considerably. With the transport authority basically giving a ‘free reign’ to operators and displaying no control over operation location or price, operators banded together and formed ‘taxi associations’ to compete over taxi drivers and routes. By 2003 60% of South African commuters used the taxi industry which was believed to be worth approximately R12 billion (NZ$2.2 billion) each year. Rivalry amongst taxi firms got out of hand and many resorted to violence and blackmail in order to secure rights over the most profitable routes. In fact the industry became more like something out of the ‘Sopranos’ with the hiring of hit men against rival associations.

By 1999, in response to this on-going problem, the South African government increased spending on public infrastructure and overhauled the taxi industry.

Taxi-related violence and deaths in South Africa – 1991-1999

Freakanomics: bad economy = deadlier terrorists & more crime?

Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner (authors of Freakonomics and SuperFreakonomics) have been looking at research into the correlation between economic conditions and the quality of suicide terrorism. They suggest that poor economic conditions lead to more able, better-educated individuals to participate in terror attacks, allowing terror organizations to send better-qualified terrorists to more complex, higher-impact, terror missions. The research was carried using data from the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Furthermore the New York Times has looked at crime rates and the level of unemployment in New York City- see graph. The main findings were:

1970’s – stagflation and abandonment of neighbourhoods and rising crime rates
1981 – recession – 107,495 robberies reported compare that with 21,787 reported in 2008
1987 – the stock market crash and NYC had historically high murders

Every recession since the late ’50s has been associated with an increase in crime and, in particular, property crime and robbery, which would be most responsive to changes in economic conditions. There is a year lag between the economic change and crime rates.

Between 1993 and 2008 NYC had seen a drastic drop in crime, economists and sociologists have debated how much of the success was attributable to new trends in policing and how much to other factors, including a growing economy. To the contrary some have argued that it is in boom periods that crime has the potential to be at high levels as there are more people walking the street or using ATM machines. Click here to see Freakanomics blog posting.