Inflation is predicted to increase in the global economy in 2017 which is a welcoming thought when you consider the threat of deflation. The Economist identified 3 areas that are behind the increase.
1. Imported inflation – producer prices in China are increasing as prices at the factory gate rose by 5.5% and the spare capacity in the economy is getting smaller. Furthermore there has been an improvement in demand especially in Asia. Additionally oil prices have increased to over $50 per barrel up from $30. Therefore a lot the above imports have become more expensive which could lead to higher prices. However a lot will depend on the exchange rate – lower value exchange rate means that imports will be more expensive
2. Capacity pressures – with a reduction in spare capacity goods become more scarce so the price of them should increase. The USA economy is close to full capacity with 4.7% unemployment and US Fed chairman Janet Yellen recently indicated that a further increase in interest rates might be necessary to cool increasing pressure on inflation. In the Euro area there is more spare capacity with the unemployment rate of 9.8% – this is especially prevalent in Italy and Spain. Therefore if the inflation rate is to increase in the Euro area it will need countries like Germany, with a 4.1% unemployment rate, to generate it.
3. Inflationary expectations – expectations of further inflation in the future can lead workers to demand higher wages in anticipation of price increases or lead producers to set higher prices in anticipation of increased costs of production. Inflationary expectations have reached their highest level in 12 years according to a survey of fund managers. But it has also raised fears the world is heading for a period of low growth, higher unemployment and accompanied by high inflation leads to stagflation.
Sources: The Economist, FT