With the A2 exam not far away here is something on Economies of Scale – also a mind map which I have edited from Susan Grant’s book.
When the average cost curve slopes downwards it means that average costs are decreasing as output increases. Whenever this happens the firm is experiencing economies of scale . If on the other hand the average costs are increasing as output increases the firm is experiencing diseconomies of scale . Why do firms experience economies of scale?
Technical Economies: large firms can take advantage of increased capacity machinery. For example, a double-decker bus can carry twice as many passengers as a single decker bus. But without the purchase costs and the running costs are not doubled.
Managerial Economies: In a small firm the manager may perform the role of cost accountant, foreman, salesman, personnel officer, stock controller etc. However, as a firm increases in size it can take advantage of specialisation of labour.
Commercial Economies: The large firm can buy it raw materials in bulk at favourable rates.
Financial Economies: the larger firm can negotiate loans from banks and related institutions easily and at favourable rates.
Risk-Bearing Economies: All firms are subject to risk at sometime or other. However, the larger firm has distinct advantages in this area as small changes in supply and demand can often ruin a small company and larger firms can cover itself by producing a variety of products for a variety of markets.